Random quotes and notes from a fantastic read,
"Shanghai the rise and fall of a decadent city."
STELLA DONG. 

I call the book fantastic; as I could not put the
book down once I started it.  I would also advise all
those investing and sniveling about the the coming
domination in China read this book.  I do understand
what Jimmy Rigers says about China and some 'parts'
had a capitalistic history.  However, China is huge
and also has a warlord, climatic, language, Japanese,
Russian, Blue shirt, Reds, all sorts of exciting
history, and Hong Kong and Shanghai were the
"colonialists" centers..Where segregation actually was 
effectual and promoted, which was interesting.

Yet, China seems to be nationalistic and I would not
be surprised if any westerner got "screwed" in China
for revenge of past colonial activities in history. If
anyone doubts that look at the City of Chicago slave
repo-lists being accumulated against "evil
capitalists."

The bible-salesman and his cohorts are teaching me a
bit of current Russian business and church movements.
I re-read Peter the Great and was
unimpressed/intersted.  I do think I will study a bit
more Chinese history. It is exciting. No doubt why the
Chinese are apprehensive about dealing in North Korea, is
in their history.

To be Shanghai: to put aboard ship by force often
with help of liquor or drug.

King George III was rejected. England's request for
expanded trade in 1793, England wanted silk and tea
but had nothing to exchange..so opium trade was
invented.

Civil war in China Taiping rebellion a revolt against
the Ching dynasty.

Taiping, was second son a failed scholar Taipig
"heavenly kingdom" a cross between Christianity and
Chinese mysticism

Nanking is 200 miles away from Shanghai. Shanghai
which approx. is latitude to New Orleans, 4 seasons,
bright spring, yet what British merchants called hot 
intolerable summers.

Triads, anti-Ching brotherhood.

1860 the revolution Taipings erupted out for their
Nanking stronghold to the Kiangsu. Pains seize the
provincial capital of Soochow than threaten Shanghai
1860-62 English and French troops posted at gates of
Shanghai and sent back rebels.

In fact, the British merchants profits in guns and
ammo were only second to opium.

From his position "Li" the shrewdest and most
dexterous of the Chinese officials would becomes
Chings most influential and richest adviser.

Shanghai became a profitable source for cotton trade.
The American Civil war cut off Europe.

Ching's defeat in the "second opium war" ratified in
1860 gave deeper trade into the mainland. Steamships
soon appeared for the cotton trade.

Ching's tariff on opium in effect legalized the trade.

"Those were the good ole times, when every Englishman
in China was youthful, the great firms princely, the 
hospitality unabounded, and the prospect of achieving 
fortune with ordinary industry and luck appeared to 
every young fellow as assured." Shanghai. Stella Dong

Hardoon bought cheaply and sold at astonishingly high
prices to factory, and office tenement builders in
post WWI building boom. Hardoon left ED Sasson in 1920
to make fantastic large sums in large scale real
estate speculations and public utilities.  Hardoon had
a misery streak he wrapped himself up in overcoat
rather than installing heat. Hardoon personally
collected rent from tenants climbing stairs badger
poor Chinese tenants that were 1 day behind in
payments"

Hardoon built a synagogue he also was a student of
Buddism.  Under his wife's influence he started a
school for monks and supplied paper for cannons.

Just as foreign merchants so no limit to their
success, they were struck at the end of 1864 by the
first depression, tea, cotton than a real estate
panic. (ofcourse the boom and bust of Shanghai was
American civil war time, interconnected even before
the Telegraph)

Chinese peasants left for their homelands after the
Taipings had been rooted from Soochow.

1840's the arrival of the Cantonese-compadres the
Chinese from northern Kiangsu were officials and
landowners, the gentry class and cooperated with the 
westerners, Trained under British officers and routed 
the Taipings.

"By the end of the century the industrial projects
launched by the champions of self strengthening,
ranged from paper mills to an imperial telegraph
service (the first line was from Shanghai to Hong
Kong) But despite the support it attracted from treaty
ports and compadros, the movement was doomed from the
start. One problem was the central governments
reluctance to foster a genuine reform program." 

In 1894 the new expansionist island kingdom goaded its 
venerable neighbor into a war over Korea. China, which 
deployed Li Hung Chang's much-vaunted Peiyang army and 
navy in the war , was expected to win handily. Instead 
nearly half of the Chinese fleet was lost in the opening 
battle off the Yalu river in August and almost all the 
remainder was destroyed in the final battle at Wehaiwei 
seven months later. The subsequent treaty of Shimonseki, 
'negotiated between a disgraced Li Hung-Chang and the 
Japanese prime minister Hiribumi Ito,' called for among 
other things payment of indemnity of 200 million taels, 
the opening of seven Chinese ports to Japanese trade and 
the cession of formosa and the Pescadores to Japan. 

"The defeat indefinitely more shaming than the opium
wars (in which the disadvantage of unfamiliarity with
western technologies could be claimed) intensified the
debate between reformers and traditionalists in
Peking" 

"In 1900 the distressed peasents attempted to set back
the Clocks known as the Boxer rebellion."

In 1905 was the resounding defeat of Russia with
Japan. Russo-Japan war.

Chinese chamber with success in 1898 boycott came the 
anti-American boycott in June 1905.

The murder was accomplished by Chen's most dedicated 
lieutenants, a 24 year old Chekiangese names Chiang -Kai-shek. 
A future nationalist strongman, murdered the bed ridden man, 
Tao in a heated argument in the hospital.

During WWI, Shanghai burst with millionaire Chinese industrialists

In 1918 when Peking outlawed the opium trade, the
Chinese government had unwittingly paved the way for
larg scale organize crime.

Meyer Lansky, " If you can have alot of what people
want and can't get, then you can supply the demand and
shovel in the dough"

The illiterate Chang Tsung-chang, The six foot seven
Sangtung monster had fought his way up from poverty by
working in gambling dens in his native Shantung. The
son of a witch and a trumpet player, Chang was most
feared and rapacious of the warlords. Critics were
instantly executed and he encouraged his men to hang
the severed heads of their victims "open mellons" they
called them-from telegraph poles through out the
province to advertise their abilities."

After the Bolsheviks took power in 1917, czarist
loyalists, White Russians, waged a futile struggle
against the Red Army for over a year before finally
being cornered in their last stronghold Siberia.
When the whites were finally ousted from Vladivostok,
in 1919, the defeated support of the czar began
pouring into China and especially into Shanghai in
large numbers.  They were hardly welcomed by
Shanghai's cate foreigners. Always careful to preserve
the appearance of their superiority to the Chinese,
the enchenced westeners found their inundation by so
many desperate and impoverished westerners
embarrassing.

The appearance of Russian women in brothels and as
street walkers was yet another shattering blow to
white prestige in China, so much so the League of
nations formed a committee to investigate the problem
of:  "white slavery in China" True, Shanghai had an
over supply of Russian hostesses and prostitutes, but
nearly all of them were forced into their professions
by lack of options.

1919 the treaty of Versailles called for the handing
over of the Germany's former leased territories in
China to Japan, with the full aquince of the warlord 
government. In Peking thousands of Chinese took the 
streets in the most violent demonstration yet in the capital.

Among the most dedicated members of Li's was a young
library assistant Mao Tse Tung, the impecunious,
brooding son of an Hudanese farmer, who had never
heard of Marx or Engels until he was taken under Li's
wing

Several Communist strikes broke out in Shanghai in
1921-22.

"coolie" which means "bitter strength"

In 1925 the Chinese communist ranks in Shanghai had
grown immeasurable due the infusion of members from
Shanghai university, a former teachers college which a
student revolt had turned into a training ground for
radicals.

The killing in May of 1925 of a Chinese worker and
Communist organizer by the Japaneses foreman of the
Jap mill Naiaga Wata during a strike set off a chain
of tragic events.

May Thirteenth Martyrs. Instantly the formally anti
Japanese protest turned into a public outcry against
foreign privilege the the unequal treaties.

On July 27, 1926 Chaing Kai-Shek newly appointed 
launchcommander in chief of the Nationalist
Revolutionary army had the Sun Yat-sen's long dreamed
of military campaign his norther expedition to retake
China from the warlords.

Vincent Sheean on ransoms heels, described the
international Settlement as a place where its'
foreigners considered that they built Shanghai out of
nothing, and frankly asserted them selves as a
superior race.

Americans associated with the Chinese Weekly Review
paper. John B Powell, A Missourian who smoked a corn
cobbed pipe Millard the founder of the paper Powell
had joined in 1917 Miller condemned imperialism in
particular British colonialism.

Shanghais bankers and businessmen found a savior in 
Shangkai-shek, whom they offered 3 million dollars 
suppress the labor movement and set up a rival 
nationalist government in Nanking.

In the 16th century when Japanese pirates had made
forays on the towns along china's coast, The Chinese
had dubbed the Japanese "dwarf bandits"

The Japanese invasion into China would not officially
take place until 1937. But its preclude took place in
Sept 18, 1931 when a small bomb explosion on the
Japanese owned Manchurian Railway in Mukden, the
capital of Manchuria. The Japanese army used it for
the pretext of occupying Manchuria.

Though Shanghai was thousands of miles away, its
response to the Japanese action was intense
nationalistic passion against the Japanese.

The Japanese, for their part, claimed victory in
Shanghai. If so, it was not only expensive and time
consuming one, but a stunning blunder to boot. Japan
had hoped to maneuver the imperialist powers to
approve their annexation of Manchuria, but the
ingloriousness of the "shanghai incident: as the japs
called the incident dashed all hopes of acceptance.

Sir Victor Sassoon cut out a large figure in Shanghai
society, indulging his appetite for parties, good
food, women and horses. From the original
Baghdad-Jews.

By any accounting Shanghai was the most international
city int he world, Yet the various nationalities chose
not to mix, but too rigidly maintain the Home"
identities" Shanghai was was one place where
nationalities stayed apart, New York, Paris, Berlin,
Vienna can point to the medley of races observed Edgar
Snow, but in Shanghai there is for the most part no
mixture, that is the phenomenon. Generation after
generation the British have stayed British the
Americans have remained 100%-ers

The Russians still at the bottom of the social ladder
set up "little Moscow"

Richard Sorge A Russian born German nationals that
set up the famous Sorge spy ring in Tokyo during WWII
The ring infiltrated the Japanese government and the
German embassy as well

The Chinese metropolis had become the Red Generals
Headquarters for Asia

Of all the weapons the Blue shirts used against the
communists, the most damaging was the way they turned
captured revolutionaries into defectors.

The members of the red brigade were paid 15 dollars a
month and kept on retainer for the communists. They
did not know the names or the circumstances of the
people they were to assassinate. It was not until the
day after they learned the names of their victims in
the newspapers.

One of the Chinese pilots panicked when the Japanese
ship turned its anti aircraft guns toward him and he 
prematurely released 2 bombs. One landed in front of 
the Cathay hotel, another went through the roof of 
the Palace hotel next door. (French Quarter) Because of 
the large numbers of refugees in the area, the numbers 
of dead and wounded in the area was a staggering 729 killed, 
861 wounded.

The grisly sight awaited those who had been inside and
made their way to the street. Mangled bodies, severed
arms and legs layed everywhere. there was a
decapitated policeman on the corner, his arms held up
as he was still directing traffic. Blue coolie
clothing was everywhere turning red" pp253 


Over the next two months bitter fighting took place in
and around Shanghai, especially Chapei. Reinforcements
from Tokyo had brought the total Japanese force to
200,000 troops. Every advantage was on the Japanese
side. none the less the Chinese troops distinguished
themselves by their bravery. Chiang Kai-Shek told his
officers to order his troops to attack without regard
to casualties and defend their positions to the last
man. His troops, some of them youngsters did just
that.

About 350,000 Chinese left Shanghai on steamers bound
for native villages in the hinterland. At the same
time intellectuals, actors and patriots, young and old
were making their way to unoccupied China.

Foreigners too, at least those who saw the writing on
the wall were departing. Following advisories from
their consulates, some 5,000 British, American boarded 
evacuation ships. Factory owners were pulling up stakes 
and moving inland. "over the tragic weekend our business 
had been destroyed and there was nothing for most of us 
to do. Carl Crow sadly noted. The threat of Japanese 
occupation of the port had seen Shanghai's silver 
shipped out to Hong Kong and its trade diverted to 
safer ports.

In the mean time the rest of the Japanese forces
marched on Nanking. During the six weeks the famous
"rape of Nanking" Japanese soldiers raped and murdered
300,000 civilians with unspeakable savagery and
cruelty.

Surrounded by all sides by the Japanese, Shanghai's
foreign enclaves were now the "lonely island" The
international settlement and the French concession had
become an oasis in a sea of conflict whose neutrality
the Japanese grudgingly respected, at least for the
time being.

Foreign Shanghai's cabarets and bars were as crowded
as ever, but the gaiety and insouviance of the old
Shanghai were gone. Shanghailanders were now "living
each day as if it were the last"

A pointed reminder that China was not the only
troubled spot in the world in 1938 with the arrival of
the first of what would be 20,000 Euro Jews fleeing
Hitler's persecution. They had come all the way to
Shanghai probably because it was the only place in the
world that did not require and had not, like every
other port shut its doors to them.

Relocating their businesses to Haonkew, the refugees
attempted to replicate their European milieu with
butcher shops, beauty salons inexpensive cafe's and
pastry shoppes filled with mouth watering displays of
Sacher torte and strudel. The newest Hollywood films
could be seen at the newly opened Broadway cinema on
Wayside road.

By 1939 the lonely island found itself not so lonely
anymore.  The outbreak of WWII was followed in 1940 by
the sailing of Shanghais British troops for Singapore
and other strategic points, along with the departure
to Australia for training to join the war effort.

Between V-J day that 1948 the USA had authorized three
billion dollars worth of aid to China, much of it in
material goods. But only a trickle of the food,
clothing, medicines, and other supplies sent by
Americans found its way to the intended recipients, as
the bulk of it was publicly auctioned off or diverted
to the black market and sold at "scandalous prices"

Nanking's officials revealed them selves as not only
selfish and hypocritical but incapable of of managing
the countries economy. Inflation had begun a mad
spiral even before the war ended when the nationalists
stated issuing paper notes to cover the lack of gold
reserves. In 1944 notes for 189 billion Chinese
dollars were put into circulation. By the end of 1946
the notes had increased to 4.5 trillion dollars. The
money was not worth the paper it was printed on, a
note driven home in 1948 when a paper mill in
Kwangtung was reported to have: " bought up eight
hundred cases of notes, that it used as raw material
in the manufacture of paper"

"To the eyes of the outsiders the Shanghaiese appeared
to be more prosperous than ever. The restaurants and
cinemas were full of Chinese families, the shop owners
were full of merchandise and the average person was
more smartly dressed than before.  But it was an
illusion. If the ordinary persons looked more
prosperous it was only because they had no choice but
to spend their money on consumer goods.

Shanghai was riding high for a fall. In anticipation
of complete economic collapse they had already jumped
ship. An exodus of wealthy Shanghaiese had begun in
1946 when the nationalists had begun prosecuting well
to do as traitors and by 1948 it was a well worn path.

Victor Sassoon, for one had sold off all his Shanghai
holdings by the end of 48, relocating himself to
Bahamas to reinvest his millions in South America.

On August 19th, in the last desperate measure to
restore economic stability Chiang, played what the
newspapers called 'last trump card"
He announced the replacement of the old currency by
the "gold yuan" which would be converted from the old
currency at 3 million to one and pegged 1 gold yuan to
4 American dollars.

Under the penalty of death all Chinese holding gold or
silver would be required to surrender their wealth to
the central bank in exchange for the new gold yuan.

Chaing Kai-shek appointed his Russian educated son,
Chiang Ching-kuo commissioner of the program sending
him to Shanghai were the pickings were the richest.

The Nationalist forces surrendered peacefully to
general Lin Piao's army on Jan 31. By the end of
January the Communists were masters of all China north
of the Yangtze.

Chiang Kai-shek resigned from office. This
resignation, like the ones before were only nominal as
he continues to mastermind behind the scenes. His
successor Li Tsung-jen had hoped to negotiate peace
settlement with the communists but could make no
progress, because Chaing not only issued secret
counter orders sabotaging all of Li's actions, but had
shifted much of the governments remaining equipment
and military troops to Taiwan.  Since the fall of
Huschow, Chiang had been redying the island as his
stronghold, shipping not only not only the most
precious of imperial treasures, but also the
governments gold reserves. 

 This last bold move "greatest robbery of all had
taken place in the dead of night in February, after
national troops cordoned off the bund to allow 500,000
ounces of gold residing in the bank of China vaults to
be put aboard a freighter to the "swiftest route to
Taiwan."
 All the gold in china, Vine mused, "was being carried
away in the traditional manner-by coolies"

When the nationalists failed to accept the settlement
agreement with the communists, one of the chief points
being the surrender of the "war criminal" Chiang
Kai-shek
Mao Tse-tungs's armies swept across the Yangtze river
in April. As they did in previous crisis, Shanghai's 
businessmen and bankers came to the fore, brokering a deal 
with the communists, to provide them with funds and medicines 
in exchange for a peaceful entrance.

Tang En-po who had vowed to defend Shanghai to the
last accepted a bribe of bullion and foreign currency
and boarded an evacuation plane to Canton on May 24th.

As the first day of "Red Shanghai" began it was
difficult to say who was more curious about whom- the 
Shanghaiese about their peasant conquerors.........
What did they make of the towering hotels, the movie 
palaces and the nightly parade of street walkers.

Yet adaptability was the by word of the denizens of
the city of mudflats. hence the popularity of a ditty
whose lyrics spoke to Shanghais cynical heart:

Me no worry
Me no care
Me going to marry a millionaire
And if he die
Me no cry
Me going to marry another guy.